What is CCTV?
CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) is a visual surveillance technology designed for monitoring a variety of environments and activities. CCTV systems typically involve a fixed (or “dedicated”) communications link between cameras and monitors.
In the past decade, the use of CCTV has grown to unprecedented levels. A significant amount of money is now spent on surveillance industry. Most towns and cities are moving to CCTV surveillance of public areas, housing estates, car parks and public facilities. Growth in the market is estimated at 15% to 20% annually.
Many central business districts are now covered by surveillance camera systems involving a linked system of cameras with full pan, tilt, zoom and infrared capacity. Their use on private property is also becoming popular. Increasingly, police and the local authorities are placing camera systems into residential properties and has even become mandatory for commercial establishments in some cities . An increasing number of cameras operate in public places, in phone booths, vending machines, buses, trains, taxis, alongside highways and inside ATMs.
The video surveillance boom is likely to extend even inside the home. Security professionals has urged victims of domestic violence to conceal video cameras in their homes to collect evidence. The technology is already being used in certain areas to support covert surveillance of parents suspected of abusing their children and similar instances.
CCTV is very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy and is promoted by police and politicians as primary solution for urban dysfunction. It is no exaggeration to conclude that the technology has had more of an impact on the evolution of law enforcement policy than just about any technology initiative in the past.
While the Philippines is clearly a nation just recently implementing CCTV, other similar countries are also installing the cameras in urban environments which a few years ago would most likely have rejected the technology.
What sort of technology is used in CCTV systems?
The modern CCTV system involves a linked system of cameras with full pan, tilt, and zoom able to be operated remotely from a control room.
These systems may involve sophisticated technology. Features can include night vision, computer assisted operation, and motion detection facilities which allows the operator to instruct the system to go on red alert when anything moves in view of the cameras. Camera systems increasingly employ bullet-proof casing, and automated self defense mechanisms which ensure that cameras under attack are covered by neighboring cameras. These can be legitimately described as military style systems.
The clarity of the pictures is often excellent, with many systems being able to recognize a cigarette packet at a hundred meters. The systems can often work in pitch blackness, bringing images up to daylight level.
Can CCTV reduce crime?
The general purpose of the CCTV is to prevent and reduce crime. In theory, this happens because of one or more of these reasons:
A: Deterrence – potential burglars and thieves may see the camera and decide that a store in question is too much of a risk and therefore not a good target
B: Prosecution – thieves and shoplifters may be caught on camera and this can help catch and prosecute them
C: Fear reduction – if everyone knows that there is a camera, they may feel safer in or around your business, thus preventing potential criminals from attacking
D: Monitoring and intervention – if there is a security guard monitoring the area through CCTV system, he or she may act on any suspicious behavior and thus prevent a crime from occurring. Security guards may also deploy employees to a suspicious spot or near a person detected on the monitors.
What is an IP camera?
IP cameras are very popular in video data capture and processing. IP stands for Internet Protocol, but these electronic devices are more popular as network cameras, webcams, or CCTV cameras. They are used in homes, offices, vehicles, and public places. IP cameras come in basic units, right up to complex multi-channel security systems with advanced built-in software. In order to understand how IP cameras work, consumers should consider the applications for the devices, as well as video data capture and resolution.
Applications for IP Cameras
Unlike USB web cameras that run only when plugged into a computer on the network with the required software, IP cameras connect directly to the network with no dependence on any other device. Some models even get their power supply through the network using Power over Ethernet (PoE) chargers. Built-in software, such as motion alert notification via SMS or email, makes these devices much more advanced than regular video cameras.
IP cameras offer two-way audio, so the user can interact with the video footage. Store owners can supervise what is happening in their absence. With a home surveillance IP camera, parents can keep an eye on their kids from outside the home. IP cameras enable remote viewing to anyone connected to the network, without compromising on security. Smartphone users can monitor multiple camera feeds while on the go. A rearview camera for cars helps drivers to park vehicles easily and safely.
Process of Data Capture and Transmission
IP cameras connect to a network of electronic devices, which could be the local area network (LAN) at home, the wide area network (WAN) at the office, or the Internet at large. IP cameras have either a wired or wireless connection, with the latter preferred for flexibility and convenience. The camera functions properly from any location, as long as the device stays within the network’s range. Most IP cameras have a dedicated memory source to store the video data captured, but it may store memory by connecting directly to the network or live web streaming over the Internet. IP cameras capture digital video data like a regular video camera, and then send it to other devices on the network.
Video Data Resolution
IP cameras capture data in a range of resolutions. High-definition (HD) video data is possible in megapixels, as 720P or 1080P formats.
Data Compression Over the Network
Higher video resolution offers better clarity to the viewer, but at the cost of increased bandwidth. The trade-off is achieved using a codec, which is an electronic device to compress data before transmission in order to save bandwidth and decompress it at the receiver’s end.
Technical Working Requirements
Video data takes up considerable bandwidth, so sufficiently high-speed Internet connectivity is a must for any night vision IP camera or similar recording device. The wired or wireless router must configure for port forwarding if it needs to transfer data out of the network, for example, over the Internet. The camera requires a static IP address for the router and other network devices to identify and connect with it. In case of a dynamic IP address that keeps changing randomly every time the camera is connected to the network, a fixed URL via Dynamic Domain Name Service (DDNS) must be set up.
Advanced Features of IP Cameras
Waterproof IP cameras are safe to use outdoors. Motion-enabled recording brings about minimal wastage of valuable memory space on the hard drive, because the camera starts capturing data only when the device detects movement. A configurable mask can be set for constant movement in the range of the camera, so that it only picks up unexpected motion. The overall appearance of modern IP cameras is more discreet; they often disguise themselves as clocks, DVD players, and even books.
Buying IP Cameras
IP cameras are easy electronic gadgets to find. Search for a product based on the application, technical specifications of the network, and connectivity. Use the category filters to narrow down the results according to your budget. Read the item description for a comprehensive list of the manufacturer’s technical device specifications. The easiest way would probably be to contact an expert. Call us, there will be no strings attached.
IP cameras have various residential and commercial applications for secure video transmission, as long as high bandwidth and dedicated networks are available. IP cameras either have wired or wireless connections, and are used both indoors and outdoors, during the day and at night. Their remote access gives users peace of mind; they can watch footage in and around their homes or businesses even while away from the properties.
What is a Wireless CCTV?
Wireless security cameras are closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras that transmit a video and audio signal to a wireless receiver through a radio band. Many wireless security cameras require at least one cable or wire for power; “wireless” refers to the transmission of video/audio. However, some wireless security cameras are battery-powered, making the cameras truly wireless from top to bottom.
Wireless cameras are proving very popular among modern security consumers due to their low installation costs (there is no need to run expensive video extension cables) and flexible mounting options; wireless cameras can be mounted/installed in locations previously unavailable to standard wired cameras. In addition to the ease of use and convenience of access, wireless security camera allows users to leverage broadband wireless internet to provide seamless video streaming over-internet.
What is Analog Wireless CCTV?
Analog wireless is the transmission of audio and video signals using radio frequencies. Typically, analog wireless has a transmission range of around 300 feet (91 meters) in open space; walls, doors, and furniture will reduce this range.
Analog wireless is found in three frequencies: 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz. Currently, the majority of wireless security cameras operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency. Most household routers, cordless phones, video game controllers, and microwaves operate on the 2.4 GHz frequency and may cause interference with your wireless security camera. 900 MHz is known as Wi-Fi Friendly because it will not interfere with the Internet signal of your wireless network.[full citation needed]
- Cost effective: the cost of individual cameras is low.
- Multiple receivers per camera: the signal from one camera can be picked up by any receiver; you can have multiple receivers in various locations to create your wireless surveillance network
- Susceptible to interference from other household devices, such as microwaves, cordless phones, video game controllers, and routers.
- No signal strength indicator: there is no visual alert (like the bars on a cellular phone) indicating the strength of your signal.
- Susceptible to interception: because analog wireless uses a consistent frequency, it is possible for the signals to be picked up by other receivers.
- One-way communication only: it is not possible for the receiver to send signals back to the camera.
What is Digital Wireless CCTV?
Digital wireless is the transmission of audio and video analog signals encoded as digital packets over high-bandwidth radio frequencies.
- Wide transmission range—usually close to 450 feet (open space, clear line of sight between camera and receiver)
- High quality video and audio
- Two-way communication between the camera and the receiver
- Digital signal means you can transmit commands and functions, such as turning lights on and off
- You can connect multiple receivers to one recording device, such as security DVR
What are the common uses and applications of Wireless CCTV?
Home security systems
Wireless security cameras are becoming more and more popular in the consumer market, being a cost-effective way to have a comprehensive surveillance system installed in a home or business for an often less expensive price. Wireless cameras are also ideal for people renting homes or apartments. Since there is no need to run video extension cables through walls or ceilings (from the camera to the receiver or recording device) one does not need approval of a landlord to install a wireless security camera system. Additionally, the lack of wiring allows for less “clutter,” avoiding damage to the look of a building.
A wireless security camera is also a great option for seasonal monitoring and surveillance. For example, one can observe a pool or patio.
Wireless security cameras are also used by law enforcement agencies to deter crimes. The cameras can be installed in many remote locations and the video data is transmitted through government-only wireless network. An example of this application is the deployment of hundreds of wireless security cameras by a Police Department on lamp posts at many streets throughout the city.
What is the range of Wireless CCTV?
Wireless security cameras function best when there is a clear line of sight between the camera(s) and the receiver. Outdoors, and with clear line of sight, digital wireless cameras typically have a range between 250 to 450 feet. Indoors, the range can be limited to 100 to 150 feet. Cubical walls, drywall, glass, and windows generally do not degrade wireless signal strength. Brick, concrete floors, and walls degrade signal strength. Trees that are in the line of sight of the wireless camera and receiver may impact signal strength.
The signal range also depends on whether there are competing signals using the same frequency as the camera. For example, signals from cordless phones or routers may affect signal strength. When this happens, the camera image may freeze, or appear “choppy”. Typical solution involves locking the channel that wireless router operates on.
What is video analytics?
Video Analytics, also referred to as Video Content Analysis (VCA), is a generic term used to describe computerized processing and analysis of video streams. Computer analysis of video is currently implemented in a variety of fields and industries, however the term “Video Analytics” is typically associated with analysis of video streams captured by surveillance systems. Video Analytics applications can perform a variety of tasks ranging from real-time analysis of video for immediate detection of events of interest, to analysis of pre-recorded video for the purpose of extracting events and data from the recorded video.
Relying on Video Analytics to automatically monitor cameras and alert for events of interest is in many cases much more effective than reliance on a human operator, which is a costly resource with limited alertness and attention. Various research studies and real-life incidents indicate that an average human operator of a surveillance system, tasked with observing video screens, cannot remain alert and attentive for more than 20 minutes. Moreover, the operator’s ability to monitor the video and effectively respond to events is significantly compromised as time goes by.
Furthermore, there is often a need to go through recorded video and extract specific video segments containing an event of interest. This need is growing as the use of video surveillance becomes more widespread and the quantity of recorded video increases. In some cases, time is of the essence, and such review must be undertaken in an efficient and rapid manner. Surveillance system users are also looking for additional ways to leverage their recorded video, including by extracting statistical data for business intelligence purposes. Analyzing recorded video is a need that can rarely be answered effectively by human operators, due to the lengthy process of manually going through and observing the recorded video and the associated manpower cost for this task.
While the necessity for, and benefits of, surveillance systems are undisputed, and the accompanying financial investment in deploying such surveillance system is significant, the actual benefit derived from a surveillance system is limited when relying on human operators alone. In contrast, the benefit accrued from a surveillance system can be significantly increased when deploying Video Analytics.
Video Analytics is an ideal solution that meets the needs of surveillance system operators, security officers, and corporate managers, as they seek to make practical and effective use of their surveillance systems.
What is NVR?
A network video recorder (NVR) is a software program that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card or other mass storage device. An NVR contains no dedicated video capture hardware. However, the software is typically run on a dedicated device, usually with an embedded operating system. Alternatively, to help support increased functionality and serviceability, standard Linux and Windows operating systems are used with standard Intel processors and video management software. An NVR is typically deployed in an IP video surveillance system.
Network video recorders are distinct from digital video recorders (DVR) as their input is from a network rather than a direct connection to a video capture card or tuner. Video on a DVR is encoded and processed at the DVR, while video on an NVR is encoded and processed at the camera, then streamed to the NVR for storage or remote viewing.
Hybrid NVR/DVR security systems exist which incorporate functions of both NVR and DVR; these are considered a form of NVR.
NVR home security systems are generally wireless, tend to be easy to set up, can be accessed through a web browser, and allow the user to be notified by email if an alarm is triggered.
What is DVR and its difference with NVR?
DVR (Digital Video Recorder): An analog and/or IP based recorder is a consumer electronic device or application software that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card or other local or networked mass storage device. A digital video recorder configured for physical security applications record video signals from closed-circuit television cameras for detection and documentation purposes. Many are designed to record audio as well, whether at the camera or as a separate apparatus in an isolated area. DVRs have evolved into devices that are feature rich and provide options that exceed the simple task of recording video images that was previously done through VCRs. Any good DVR CCTV system provides a multitude of advanced functions over VCR technology including video searches by event, time, date and camera. There is also much more control over quality and frame rate allowing disk space usage to be optimized and the DVR can also be set to overwrite the oldest security footage should the disk become full. In some DVR security systems remote access to security footage using a PC, Smart Phone, or tablet can also be achieved by connecting the DVR to a LAN network that has an internet service. Some of the latest professional digital video recorders include video analytics software, to enable functionality such as ‘virtual alarm system’ or even the detection of differing objects on the scene. Security DVRs may be categorized as being either PC-based or a stand-alone unit. A PC-based DVR’s architecture is a classical personal computer with video cards designed to capture video images. A stand-alone DVR is specifically designed as a digital video recorder with its own operating system and application software contained in firmware or built in flash memory.
Hardware features of security DVRs vary between manufacturers and may include but are not necessarily limited to:
- Designed for rack mounting or desktop configurations.
- Front panel switches and indicators that allow the various features of the machine to be controlled.
- Connections to external control devices such as a mouse, keyboards, POS device, or PTZ controller.
- Controlled outputs to external video display monitors.
- Data ports for network connections consistent with the network type and utilized to control features of the recorder and to send and/or receive video signals.
- Internal optical drives or HDD’s typically for archiving video.
- Connections to external storage media.
- Alarm event inputs from external security detection devices, usually one per video input.
- Alarm event outputs from internal detection features such as motion detection or loss of video.
- Single or multiple video inputs with connector types consistent with the analogue or digital video provided such as coaxial cable, twisted pair or optical fiber cable. The most common number of inputs are 4, 8, 16 and 32. Looping video outputs for each input which duplicates the corresponding input video signal. These output signals are used by other video equipment such as matrix switchers, multiplexers, and/or an individual video monitor.
Software features vary between manufacturers and may include but are not necessarily limited to:
- Routing of input video to video monitors based on user inputs or automatically on alarms or events.
- Log filing of USERs, IP addresses, Input, time and date stamping.
- Alarm and event logging on appropriate video inputs.
- Alarm and event search.
- One or more sound recording channels. User selectable image capture rates either on an all input basis or input by input basis. The capture rate feature may be programmed to automatically adjust the capture rate on the occurrence of an external alarm or an internal event
- Selectable image resolution either on an all input basis or input by input basis. The image resolution feature may be programmed to automatically adjust the image resolution on the occurrence of an external alarm or an internal e vent.
- Compression methods determining the quality of playback. An H.264 hardware compression offers fast transfer rates over a data network with high quality video.
- Motion detection provided on an input by input basis, this feature detects motion in the total image or a user definable portion of the image and usually provides sensitivity settings. Detection causes an internal event that may be output to external equipment and/or be used to trigger changes in other internal features.
- Lack of motion detection. Provided on an input by input basis, this feature detects the movement of an object into the field of view and remaining still for a user definable time. Detection causes an internal event that may be output to external equipment and/or used to trigger changes in other internal features.
- Direction of motion detection. Provided on an input by input basis, this feature detects the direction of motion in the image that has been determined by the user as an unacceptable occurrence. Detection causes an internal event that may be output to external equipment and/or be used to trigger changes in other internal features. Such as a stationary camera being used as a trigger to tell a PTZ camera to look and focus in an area of interest based off of a preset you created.
NVR (Network Video Recorder): Unlike its predecessor, the DVR, a NVR is not limited to be in the same area as your cameras cabling to one section. The unit can be placed virtually anywhere, it simply just needs to be on the same LAN network as the IP based cameras. In terms, a network video recorder are distinct from digital video recorders as their input is assigned on a network rather than a direct connection to a video capture card. Video on a DVR is encoded and processed at the DVR, while video on an NVR is encoded and processed at the camera, then streamed to the NVR for storage or remote viewing. An NVR is a software program that records video in a digital format to a disk drive, USB flash drive, SD memory card or other mass storage device. An NVR contains no dedicated video capture hardware. However, the software is typically run on a dedicated device, usually with an embedded operating system.
NVR is used in IP video surveillance systems. Because of the nature of these units, a camera that is capable of capturing High Resolution (Mega Pixel cameras) will record and playback as that desired resolution unlike a DVR system. Hybrid DVR security systems exist which incorporate functions of both NVR and DVR.
What is motion detection?
A motion sensor (or motion detector) is the linchpin of your security system, because it’s the main device that detects when someone is in your home when they shouldn’t be. A motion sensor uses one or multiple technologies to detect movement in an area. If a sensor is tripped, a signal is sent to your security system’s control panel, which connects to your monitoring center, alerting you and the monitoring center to a potential threat in your home.
The following guide will answer all your questions about motion sensors: the different types, proper placement, and how to use them.
The Role of Motion Sensors in Your Home Security
The main purpose of motion detection is to sense an intruder and send an alert to your control panel, which alerts your monitoring center. Sensors work when you are not home, or when you tell the system you are not there. Some security systems can be programmed to record events via a security camera when motion is detected.
Motion sensors stand guard, ready to react to various situations, such as movement in your living room, windows or doors being opened or closed, or a broken window. Motion sensors can:
- Alert you in the event that your teen breaks curfew
- Trigger a doorbell when someone approaches the front door
- Alert you when kids enter restricted areas in the home, like the basement, workout room, or medicine cabinet
- Save energy by using motion sensor lighting in unoccupied spaces
- Notify you if pets enter areas where they’re not supposed to be
What is CCTV POS Integration?
For retail businesses, internal theft is the biggest source of loss. Catching an employee sneaking out with a TV is much rarer than a cashier manipulating the system to give away merchandise to their friends or family.
- 34% of all 18-29 year old employees believe it is justifiable to steal from their employers
- 60% of business failures are a direct result of internal theft
Point of Sale or “POS” integration is simply combining video and information from a cash register. It is a great retail security resource for a manager or owner to monitor sales. With a camera, one can see that a customer came to the register and made a purchase and money was exchanged. When the POS is added to the video now the whole story can be told. What was rung up? Was it rung up for the correct price? How much cash was collected? Was every product scanned?
What is Network Cabling?
Network cables are used to connect and transfer data and information between computers, routers, switches and storage area networks . Cables are essentially the carrier or media through which data flows.
There are different types of network cable, and the appropriate type to use will depend on the structure and topology of the overall architecture of the system. The most commonly used types of network cables are dominated by what is referred to as “twisted pair cable”. In local area networks, twisted pair cable is by far the most commonly used type of cable.
Twisted pair cable is used in many ethernet networks. Comprising of four pairs of thin wires or conductors, these wires are contained inside of the insulation or outer sheath of the cable. Each pair is twisted into several additional twists. These twists are to prevent interference from other devices and indeed from other adjacent cables!
Fiber optic cabling is specified where high bandwidth is needed; especially in the data center environment and where an installation demands high capacity, typically hospitals, airports, banks. Fiber optic is fast becoming the medium of choice for any installation that is sending high volumes of data.
What is Voice and Data Cabling?
Whether you’re moving to a new location, or you’re upgrading the voice and data cabling in your office or your business, you need to ensure that you hire the right data cabling installation services. Choosing the wrong services can lead to downtime for your business, which can lead to loss of profit.
Structured voice and data cabling is a critical component in ensuring optimal performance from your network. From voice to video, LANs to IP, professional and skilled structured cabling are essential to keep your network modern, provide a platform for growth and keep your network running. Bits Technology offers cabling installation as part of our specialized services and can provide assistance for all of your low-voltage cabling, single to multiple locations and network installation needs. Bits cabling services are designed to enhance your network today and allow you to evolve with the technologies of tomorrow.
We work with our clients to develop a project plan and comprehensive overall design to deliver a quality end solution. Our team of experts will work with you to discuss not only timelines and costs but capabilities and expected outcomes of your network solutions. We consistently deliver our projects on time and on budget and will follow up to make sure our solutions live up to the expectations set ahead of time.
We provide the following services for voice, data, communication, and video cable installation needs.
- CAT 6E cable installation
- CAT 5 cable installation
- CAT 3 cable installation
- CAT 3, 5, and 6 cable installation with line termination and testing
- Coax cable installations, termination, and testing for television, conference, and video needs
- Data network and cabling
- Site surveys
- Complete office integration of Data & Phone to Patch Panels in designated Data rooms.
What is Backbone Cabling?
Backbone cabling systems provide necessary interconnects in your facility, providing the vital cabling foundation you need to stay connected. From your front office to telecommunications rooms, equipment rooms, and the manufacturing floor – backbone cabling holds it all together.
Backbone cabling provides the vital telecommunications access between different areas. Especially for busy and complex industries where fast and efficient exchange of information is necessary, a backbone cabling solution that can be depended on is a particularly valuable asset. With this in mind, whether you’re buying cable for a healthcare facility or manufacturing complex, a fiber optic backbone cable system ensures that any facility is wired for success.
When designing a facility, it is important to anticipate the communications needs both now and in the years to come. By anticipating evolving data transmission and bandwidth requirements, greater savings can be realized in the future.
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